Mexico: Light-duty: Emissions

Overview

A mix of U.S. Tier 1 to 2 emissions limits and Euro 3 and 4 standards has been in effect since 2004. Emission testing is conducted using the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for the EPA-based standards and NEDC for Euro standards.

Standard type
Conventional pollutant emission limits

Current Standard
NOM-042-SEMARNAT-2003

Applicability
Vehicles with GVW ≤ 3,857 kg

History

Mexican emissions requirements for new vehicles and engines are adopted by the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT). Manufacturers can chose to comply with emission limits based on either US or European standards.

Emissions standards for both light- and heavy-duty vehicles were first established in 1988 and became effective in model year 1993 (NOM-042-ECOL-1993 and NOM-042-ECOL-1993).

Mexican light-duty standards were later updated with NOM-042-ECOL-1999, which became effective with MY 2001 and strengthened standards to be equivalent to the US Tier 1. NOM-042-SEMARNAT-2003 provides an option of compliance with standards based on the U.S. regulatory system, with a mix of emissions limits from US Tier 1 and 2, or the European system, moving from to Euro 3 and 4 standards. This regulation has been in effect since 2004 .

Technical Standards

Light-Duty Vehicle Classification

Light-duty vehicles are defined as vehicles of Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) ≤ 3857 kg. Passenger cars (PC) are defined as vehicles with up to 10 seats, including the driver. Light trucks are classified into four groups—corresponding approximately to the US Light Duty Truck 1 to 4—based on the GVW and the test weight (weight of the vehicle with full fuel tank) as follows:

  • CL1: GVW ≤ 2722 kg, test weight ≤ 1701 kg
  • CL2: GVW ≤ 2722 kg, test weight 1701 – 2608 kg
  • CL3: GVW 2722 – 3857 kg, test weight ≤ 2608 kg
  • CL4: GVW 2722 – 3857 kg, test weight 2608 – 3857 kg

Weight ratings based on the European grouping for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles using a vehicle’s reference mass (weight of vehicle with full tank of fuel + 100 kg) are also used:

  • CL Class 1: reference mass ≤ 1305 kg
  • CL Class 2: reference mass > 1305 kg but ≤ 1760 kg
  • CL Class 3: reference mass > 1760 kg

MY 1993-2003

Emission standards for light-duty vehicles (MY 1993-2003) are summarized in the table below. The standards were based on US regulations and Federal Test Procedures (FTP) (FTP-75). The 1993 requirements were based on the US 1981 emission standards, while the 2001 requirements represent the US Tier 1 standards without On Board Diagnostics (OBD) II provisions.

The standards apply both to gasoline and diesel vehicles, with the exception of NOx standards, as specified, and the PM standard that applies only to diesel vehicles. Natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles have the same standards as gasoline vehicles.

Emission Standards for Cars and Light-Duty Trucks, g/km
Year CO NMHC* NOx PM†
Gasoline Diesel
Passenger Cars
1993 2.11 0.25 0.62 0.62 0.07
2001 2.11 0.156 0.25 0.62 0.07
Light Trucks CL1
1994 8.75 0.63 1.44 1.44 0.07
2001 2.11 0.156 0.25 0.62 0.07
Light Trucks CL2
1994 8.75 0.63 1.44 1.44 0.07
2001 2.74 0.20 0.44 0.62 0.07
Light Trucks CL3
1994 8.75 0.63 1.44 1.44 0.07
2001 2.74 0.20 0.44 0.62 0.07
Light Trucks CL4
1994 8.75 0.63 1.44 1.44 0.10
2001 3.11 0.24 0.68 0.62 0.10
Notes:
* total hydrocarbons (THC) prior to model-year 2001† diesel vehicles only

Gasoline, natural gas, and LPG vehicles of all classes and all model years must also meet an evaporative (SHED) limit of 2 g/test.

MY 2004 and later

Limit Values

New vehicles must meet either the standards based on US EPA standards or those based on Euro standards, as outlined in the tables below. Tailpipe emissions limits for model year 2004 and later vehicles are based on US Tier 1 and Tier 2 limits and Euro 3 and Euro 4 standards. The evaporative emissions standard is set at 2.0 grams per test for all gasoline and LPG vehicles, under any standard or regulatory option. Vehicles meeting these standards are also required to be equipped with OBD, with European, U.S. or any similar OBD systems allowed. Gasoline vehicle standards also apply to natural gas and LPG vehicles.

Light-Duty Vehicle Emission Limits Based on US EPA Standards, g/km
Standard Class CO NMHC NOx PM
Gasoline Diesel Gasoline Diesel Gasoline Diesel Gasoline Diesel
A1
PC 2.11 0.156 0.25 0.62 n/a 0.050
CL1
CL2 2.74 0.200 0.44 0.62 0.062
CL3
CL4 3.11 0.240 0.68 0.95 0.075
B2
PC 2.11 0.099 0.249 n/a 0.050
CL1
CL2 0.062
CL3 2.74 0.121
CL4 0.075
C3
PC 2.11 0.047 0.068 n/a 0.050
CL1
CL2 0.062
CL3 0.087 0.124
CL4 0.075
Notes:
1. “A” standard. Maximum permissible limits for vehicles model year 2004 to 2009
2. “B” standard: Maximum permissible limits phased in starting with model year 2007 and going through “Year 3” (see phase-in schedule below).
3. “C” standard: Maximum permissible limits applicable from “Year 1” and later (see phase-in schedule below).

Gasoline, natural gas, and LPG vehicles of all classes and all model years must also meet an evaporative (SHED) limit of 2 g/test.

Light-Duty Vehicle Emission Limit Option Based on European Standards, g/km
Standard Class CO NMHC NOx PM
Gasoline Diesel Gasoline Diesel Gasoline Diesel Gasoline Diesel
B PC 1.25 0.64 0.125 0.56 0.100 0.50 n/a 0.050
CL Class 1
CL Class 2 2.26 0.80 0.162 0.72 0.125 0.65 0.070
CL Class 3 2.83 0.95 0.200 0.86 0.137 0.78 0.100
C PC 1.00 0.50 0.10 0.30 0.08 0.25 n/a 0.025
CL Class 1
CL Class 2 1.81 0.63 0.13 0.39 0.10 0.33 0.040
CL Class 3 2.27 0.74 0.16 0.46 0.11 0.39 0.060

Gasoline, natural gas, and LPG vehicles of all classes and all model years must also meet an evaporative (SHED) limit of 2 g/test.

Equivalence with US and European Standards

Light-duty vehicle tailpipe emissions limits for the US option are based on a combination of US Tier 1 and Tier 2 limit values for 50,000 miles of durability. The evaporative emissions limit is based on the substantially less stringent European limit.

Light-Duty Vehicle Emission Limit Equivalence with US EPA Standards
Standard Class CO NMHC NOx PM
All All Gasoline Diesel Diesel
A PC Tier 1 Tier 1 Tier 1 Tier 1 Tier 1
CL1
CL2 Tier 1 (100k)a
CL3
CL4 Tier 1 (100k)a Tier 1 (100k)a
B PC Tier 2 Bin 5-10 Tier 2 Temporary Bin 10b Tier 2 Temporary Bin 10b Tier 1
CL1
CL2 Tier 1 (100k)a
CL3 Tier 2 Temporary Bin 10b Tier 2 Temporary Bin 10b
CL4
C PC Tier 2 Bin 5-8 Tier 2 Bin 5-7 Tier 2 Bin 7 Tier 1
CL1
CL2 Tier 1 (100k)a
CL3 Tier 2 Bin 8 Tier 2 Temporary Bin 9b
CL4
a Tier 1 (100k) indicate values are taken from the higher emissions limits required in the US after 100,000 miles of use, but applied here after only 50,000 miles of vehicle use. As a result, these limits are less stringent than the US Tier 1 standard on which they are based.
b Bins 9 and above are temporary bins that are no longer allowed under the US Tier 2 regulation.

Light-duty vehicle emission limits for the European standards option are based on a combination of Euro 3 and Euro 4 standards. The evaporative emissions limit matches Euro 3 and 4 standards.

Light-Duty Vehicle Emission Limit Equivalence with European Standards
Standard Class CO NMHC NOx PM
Gasoline, LPG, NG Diesel Gasoline, LPG, NG Diesel Gasoline, LPG, NG Diesel Diesel
B PC, CL1, CL2, CL3 Euro 3a Euro 3 Euro 3a Euro 3 Euro 3a Euro 3 Euro 3
C PC, CL1, CL2, CL3 Euro 4 Euro 4 Euro 4 Euro 4 Euro 4 Euro 4 Euro 4
a These standards are somewhat more stringent than Euro 3 but not as stringent as Euro 4.

Emission durability requirements

While the standards are based on US EPA limits and European limits, they are not necessarily structured the same way. For example, the NOx and PM limits defined by the “A” standard are a combination of 50,000 mile and full useful life US EPA Tier 1 limits. For the “B” and “C” standards, the PM limits do not change, (i.e., they stay at the Tier 1 limits) while the NOx standards decrease to limits based on 50,000 mile US EPA Tier 2 values. The NOx limit for the “B” standard is US Tier 2 Bin 10 and for the “C” standard is Bin 7 (for lighter vehicles) and Bin 9 (for heavier vehicles). With the exception of “B” standard for gasoline, LPG and natural gas, the standards are equivalent to Euro 3 and 4 limits. While the US Tier 1 and Tier 2 regulations set durability requirements of 100,000 miles, the regulation in Mexico sets durability requirements of 50,000 miles (80,000 km) for the US EPA option, and 100,000 km for the European option.

Phase-in schedule

The phase-in schedule for NOM 042 is dependent on the year of nationwide compliance with low sulfur fuel standards. At the time of publication of the current standard the rule quality standard has still not been finalized. “Year 1” was defined as the “time when the relevant regulatory instrument establishes full availability in the country of gasoline with an average fuel sulfur content of 30 ppm and a maximum of 80 ppm and diesel with a maximum of 10 ppm sulfur content.” With the continued delay in implementation of the existing fuel quality standards, “Year 1” of the calendar is still not set.

Compliance with “A” standard was a requirement or option for vehicles with model years 2004 to 2009. Compliance with “B” standard was phased in beginning with model year 2007 and will be phased out after the model year produced in “Year 3” of full compliance with the fuel quality standard. Compliance with “C” standard will be phased in starting with the first year of full compliance with the fuel quality standard and will be mandatory for all vehicles in the forth year of full compliance. The phase-in schedules for vehicles meeting B and C standards are as follows:

Phase-In Schedule of Light-Duty Vehicles Meeting B Standards
Standard 2007 2008 2009 2010
A 75% 50% 30% 0%
B 25% 50% 70% 100%
Phase-In Schedule of Light-Duty Vehicles Meeting C Standards
Standard Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4
A+B 75% 50% 30% 0%
C 25% 50% 70% 100%

Fuel quality requirements

An important factor in the phase-in of these vehicles is the introduction of low sulfur gasoline and diesel. NOM-016-CRE-2016 set gasoline sulfur limits at an average of 30 ppm and a maximum of 80 ppm and set a timeline for diesel to meet 15 ppm sulfur limits by 2019 nationwide. According to that standards, “Year 1” (Año 1) will be 2019 and full compliance with Standard C would not be achieved until 2023.

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