Indonesia: Fuels: Diesel and Gasoline

Overview

Indonesia has multiple fuel grades for diesel and gasoline. As of January 2017, diesel with cetane number 48 is limited to 2,500 ppm sulfur nationwide; diesel with cetane number 51 has been limited to 500 ppm sulfur since 2006. The nationwide diesel sulfur limit tightens to 500 ppm in 2021 and 50 ppm in 2025. For gasoline, sulfur limits are set at 500 ppm.

Standard type
Fuel quality
Regulating Body
Directorate General of Oil and Gas, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (Direktorat Jenderal Minyak & Gas Bumi, Kementrian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral)
Current Standard

  • Diesel:
    • Cetane Number (CN) 48 (applies to 48 ≤ CN < 51): 3500 ppm
    • CN 51 or higher: 500 ppm
  • Gasoline: 500 ppm

History

There are several fuel grades sold in Indonesia both for gasoline and diesel. Out of four retail fuel vendors in the country, only Pertamina distributes fuel countrywide. Others have retail pumps in the Greater Jakarta area and a few large cities in Indonesia. The table below shows the different grades of fuel by vendor and commercial name.

 

Diesel and Gasoline Fuel Grades Sold in Indonesia
Vendor Diesel Gasoline
CN 48 CN 51 RON 88 RON 90 RON 91 RON 95
Pertamina(1) BioSolar
Pertamina Dex
Premium Pertalite Pertamax Pertamax Plus
Shell Shell Diesel Super 92 Super Extra 95
Petronas Petronas Diesel Primax 92 Primax 95
Total Performance Diesel Performance 92 Performance 92
Notes:
(1)State-owned company, sole distributor of subsidized CN 48 diesel fuel

 

Phase-out of leaded gasoline

Major improvements to fuel quality began in 1999 when the Ministry of Energy issued Kepmen 1585/1999, mandating the gradual phase-out of leaded fuels by 1 January 2003. In practice, the phase-out of leaded gasoline started in the Greater Jakarta Area in 2001, followed by other regions in the following years. Not until 1 July 2006 did state-owned Pertamina completely phase out its leaded gasoline sales.

Reductions in fuel sulfur content

On 17 March 2006 the Directorate General of Oil and Gas at the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources issued new fuel standards for both gasoline (SK 3674 /2006) and diesel fuel (SK 3675/2006), effective immediately. The regulation mandates a maximum sulfur content of 500 ppm for all gasoline grades and for diesel fuel with a cetane number of 51 or above. Diesel fuel with a cetane number of 48 however, is limited to 3500 ppm sulfur.

Updates to both gasoline and diesel fuel standards were issued on 19 November 2013. The regulation for gasoline, in SK 933/2013, sets fuel specifications for RON 88 gasoline and eliminates leaded fuel specifications but retains the Euro 2 sulfur limits. SK 978/2013 regulates diesel fuels with cetane number 48. The regulation retains the sulfur content limit of 3500 ppm but delays the implementation date to 2015. It also adds targets to reduce diesel sulfur content to 500 ppm by 2021 and 50 ppm by 2025. Implementation dates for these reductions in fuel sulfur content are presented below:

 

Timeline for Reductions in Fuel Sulfur Content (ppm)
Date Diesel Gasoline
CN 48 CN 51 RON 88 RON 90 RON 91 RON 95
17 Mar 2006 3500 500 500 500 500
22 Mar 2013 500
19 Nov 2013 500
1 Jan 2015 3500
1 Jan 2016 3000
1 Jan 2017 2500
1 Jan 2021 500
1 Jan 2025 50

 

Biofuels Mandate

Since 2008 the Ministry of Energy has set minimum biofuels volume requirements for all gasoline and diesel-equivalent fuels sold in Indonesia. This mandate has been updated several times. The most recent update released in 2015 mandates a 20% biodiesel blend in 2016 and 30% in 2020 for the transportation sector. The required bioethanol blend in gasoline is 5% in 2016 and 10% in 2020.

Technical Standards

Diesel

Indonesia has two different diesel specification regulations based on cetane number: CN 48 and CN 51. Domestic sales of CN 48 by Pertamina are currently subsidized by the government.

 

Indonesia Diesel Fuels Specifications
Characteristics Unit CN 48 CN 51 Testing Method
Implementation Date 19 November 2013 17 March 2006
Cetane Number (min) 48 51 ASTM D613
Cetane Index (min) 45 48 ASTM D4737
Density at 15oC kg/m3 815-860 820-860(1) ASTM D1298 or D4052
Viscosity at 40oC mm2/s 2.0-4.5 2.0-4.5 ASTM D445
Sulfur content (max) %m/m 0.35(2)
0.30(3)
0.25(4)
0.05(5)
0.005(6)
0.05 ASTM D2622 or D5453 or 4294 or D7039
Distilation:
T90(7)
T95(7)
Final boiling point
oC ASTM D86
370 340
360
370
Flash Point (min) oC 52 55 ASTM D93
Pour Point (max) oC 18 18 ASTM D97
Carbon Residue (max) %m/m 0.1 0.3 ASTM D4530 or D189
Water content (max) mm/kg 500 500 ASTM 6304
Biological Growth kg/m3 nil nil
FAME content %v/v
Methanol content %v/v undetected undetected ASTM D4815
Copper Strip Corrosion merit Class I Class I ASTM D130
Ash Content (max) %m/m 0.01 0.01 ASTM D482
Sediment Content (max) %m/m 0.01 0.01 ASTM D473
Strong acid number (max) mg KOH/g 0 0 ASTM D664
Total acid number (max) mg KOH/g 0.6 0.3 ASTM D664
Particulate (max) mg/l 10 ASTM D2276
Lubricity, HFRR wear scar dia.@60oC (max) micron 460(8) 460 ASTM D6079
Color (max) ASTM no. 3.0 1.0 ASTM D1500
Visual appearance clear and bright clear and bright
Notes:
– Additives used have to be compatible with engine oil and do not contribute to crust on engine
– Additives with ash-forming components are not permitted
– Handling has to be done properly as to minimize contamination (dust, water,other fuel, etc.)
– Labeling at the pump has to be sufficient and defined
(1) For environment protection purpose, density of 815kg/m3is permitted
(2) 0.35% m/m limit equals to 3500 ppm, implemented in 2015
(3) 0.30% m/m limit equals to 3000 ppm, implemented starting 1 January 2016
(4) 0.25% m/m limit equals to 2500 ppm, implemented starting 1 January 2017
(5) 0.05% m/m limit equals to 500 ppm, implemented starting 1 January 2021
(6) 0.005% m/m limit equals to 50 ppm, implemented starting 1 January 2025
(7) Only need to comply to either T95 or T90, not both
(8) Starting 1 January 2016

 

Gasoline

Gasoline specifications in Indonesia are regulated under three different regulations based on their Research Octane Number (RON):

 

Indonesia Gasoline Specification
Characteristics Unit RON 88 RON 90 RON 91 RON 95 Testing Method
Implementation Date 19 November 2013 22 March 2013 17 March 2006 17 March 2006
Research Octane Number RON (min) 88 90 91 95 ASTM D2699
Oxidation Stability minutes (min) 360 360 480 480 ASTM D252
Sulfur(1) %m/m (max) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 ASTM D2622 or D4294 or D7039
Lead(2) g/l (max) 0.013 0.013 0.013 D3237
Metal Content (Manganese, Iron, etc.) mg/l (max) untraced untraced untraced ASTM D3831 or IP74
Oxygen(3) (max) %m/m 2.7(4) 2.7 2.7 2.7 ASTM D4815
Olefin (max) %v/v report report report(5) report(5) ASTM D1319
Aromatics (max) %v/v report report 50.0 40.0 ASTM D1319
Benzene (max) %v/v report* report 5.0 5.0 ASTM D4420 except for *: ASTM D5580 or D6839 or D6730 or D3606
Distilation:
10% evaporation
50% vol. evaporation
90% vol. evaporation
Final boiling point
Residue
oC ASTM D86
≤74 ≤74 ≤70 70
75-125 88-125 77-110 77-110
≤180 ≤180 130-180 130-180
≤215 ≤215 ≤215 ≤205
≤2.0 ≤2.0 ≤2.0 ≤2.0
Sediment (max) mg/l 1 1 1 1 ASTM D5452
Unwashed Gum (max) mg/100ml 70 70 70 70 ASTM 381
Washed Gum (max) mg/100ml 5 5 5 5 ASTM D381
Vapor Pressure kPa 45-69 45-69 45-60 45-60 ASTM D5191 or D323
Density at 15oC kg/m3 715-770 715-770 715-770 715-770 ASTMD4052 or D1298
Copper strip corrosion merit Class I Class I Class I Class I ASTM D130
Sulfur Mercaptan(6)(max) %mass 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 ASTM D3227
Visual appearance clear and bright clear and bright clear and bright clear and bright
Odor marketable marketable marketable marketable
Color Yellow Green Blue Yellow
Coloring agent content (max) g/100l 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13
Notes:
– Additives used have to be compatible with engine oil and do not contribute to crust on engine
– Additives with ash-forming components are not permitted
– Handling has to be done properly as to minimize contamination (dust, water,other fuel, etc.)
(1) 0.005%m/m limit equals to 500 ppm
(2) Lead injection is not permitted, lead content limit from crude oil refinery only
(3) When oxygenates are used, ethers are preferred. Alcohol with carbon molecule content >2 is limited to 0.1% volume. Methanols are prohibited.
(4) Bioethanol content refers to Permen ESDM 25/2013 on Amendment to Permen ESDM 32/2008 on Procurement, Use, and Sales of Biofuels as Alternatife Fuels.
(5) If olefin content is >20%, oxidation stability test result minimum is 1000 minutes.
(6) 0.002%m/m is equal to 20 ppm

 

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