India: Nonroad: Emissions

Overview

Both construction machinery and tractors are currently under Bharat Stage IIIA. While the Automotive Association of India (ARAI) has published a summary of emissions regulations that propose that nonroad emissions standards progress to Bharat IV in 2022 and Bharat V in 2026, this has not yet been codified in law. 

Standard type
Conventional pollutant emission limits

Applicability
Nonroad engines and generator sets

History

In India, the nonroad category consists of agricultural tractors and trailers, construction machinery, and generator sets. India first regulated non-road vehicles in 1999 with the implementation of emissions standards for agricultural tractors. These standards were tightened over the next decade, and India also implemented separate emissions standards for construction equipment in 2007. With time, India has worked to unify emissions limits for both categories, although differences remain for engines with power ratings lower than 19 kW. In 2011, India tightened all of these standards and based them on the US nonroad emission standards pattern. The test procedure followed is the ISO 8178 C1 cycle (as used in the US). Therefore, though India names its standards using the “stage” terminology used in Europe, in reality its standards follow the US “tier” pattern. Generator sets were first regulated in India in 2004, with a few changes made over the next year and a half to equalize emissions limits for all generator sets operating below 800 kW. Emissions regulations for generator sets with power ratings over 800 kW are treated as power plants and their emissions are regulated as such.1 Emission standards for generator sets are specified in milligrams per normal cubic meter.

Technical Standards

Construction Machinery

Emission standards for diesel construction machinery were adopted on 21 September 2006, and are denoted as Construction Equipment Vehicles, or CEV. The standards are structured into two tiers:

  • Bharat (CEV) Stage II – These standards are based on the EU Stage I requirements, but also cover smaller engines that were not regulated under the EU Stage I.
  • Bharat (CEV) Stage III – These standards are based on US Tier 2/3 requirements.

The standards are summarized in the following table:

Bharat (CEV) Emission Standards for Diesel Construction Machinery
Engine Power Date CO HC HC+NOx NOx PM
kW g/kWh
Bharat (CEV) Stage II
P < 8 2008.10 8.0 1.3 9.2 1.00
8 ≤ P < 19 2008.10 6.6 1.3 9.2 0.85
19 ≤ P < 37 2007.10 6.5 1.3 9.2 0.85
37 ≤ P < 75 2007.10 6.5 1.3 9.2 0.85
75 ≤ P < 130 2007.10 5.0 1.3 9.2 0.70
130 ≤ P < 560 2007.10 5.0 1.3 9.2 0.54
Bharat (CEV) Stage III
P < 8 2011.04 8.0 7.5 0.80
8 ≤ P < 19 2011.04 6.6 7.5 0.80
19 ≤ P < 37 2011.04 5.5 7.5 0.60
37 ≤ P < 75 2011.04 5.0 4.7 0.40
75 ≤ P < 130 2011.04 5.0 4.0 0.30
130 ≤ P < 560 2011.04 3.5 4.0 0.20

The limit values apply for both type approval (TA) and conformity of production (COP) testing. Testing is performed on an engine dynamometer over the ISO 8178 C1 (8-mode) and D2 (5-mode) test cycles.

The Bharat Stage III standards must be met over the useful life periods shown below. Alternatively, manufacturers may use fixed emission deterioration factors of 1.1 for CO, 1.05 for HC, 1.05 for NOx, and 1.1 for PM.

Bharat (CEV) Stage III Useful Life Periods
Power Rating Useful Life Period
hours
< 19 kW 3000
19-37 kW constant speed 3000
variable speed 5000
> 37 kW 8000

Agricultural Tractors

Emission standards for diesel agricultural tractors are summarized below.

Bharat (Trem) Emission Standards for Diesel Agricultural Tractors
Engine Power Date CO HC HC+NOx NOx PM
kW g/kWh
Bharat (Trem) Stage I
All 1999.10 14.0 3.5 18.0
Bharat (Trem) Stage II
All 2003.06 9.0 15.0 1.00
Bharat (Trem) Stage III
All 2005.10 5.5 9.5 0.80
Bharat (Trem) Stage III A
P < 8 2010.04 5.5 8.5 0.80
8 ≤ P < 19 2010.04 5.5 8.5 0.80
19 ≤ P < 37 2010.04 5.5 7.5 0.60
37 ≤ P < 56 2011.04 5.0 4.7 0.40
56 ≤ P < 75 2011.04 5.0 4.7 0.40
75 ≤ P < 130 2011.04 5.0 4.0 0.30
130 ≤ P < 560 2011.04 3.5 4.0 0.20

Emissions are tested over the ISO 8178 C1 (8-mode) cycle. For Bharat (Trem) Stage III A, the useful life periods and deterioration factors are the same as for Bharat (CEV) Stage III.

Generator Sets

Emission Standards for Diesel Engines < 800 kW for Generator Sets2  
Engine Power (P) Date CO HC NOx PM Smoke
g/kw-hr m-1
P ≤ 19 kW July 2003 5.00 1.30 9.20 0.60 0.70
July 2004 3.50 1.30 9.20 0.30 0.70
July 2005* 3.50 1.30 9.20 0.30 0.70
19 < P ≤ 50 kW July 2003 5.00 1.30 9.20 0.50 0.70
July 2004* 3.50 1.30 9.20 0.30 0.70
50 < P ≤ 176 kW July 2004* 3.50 1.30 9.20 0.30 0.70
176 < P ≤ 800 kW Nov 2004* 3.50 1.30 9.20 0.30 0.70
Note:
* current standard

Engines are tested over the 5-mode ISO 8178 D2 test cycle. Smoke opacity is measured at full load.

Emission Limits for Diesel Engines > 800 kW for Generator Sets3  
Date CO NMHC NOx PM
mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 ppm(v) mg/Nm3
Before 2003.07 150 150 1100 75
2003.07 – 2005.06 150 100 970 75
2005.07 150 100 710 75

Concentrations are corrected to dry exhaust conditions with 15% residual O2.

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