China: Motorcycles: Emissions

Overview

As of July 2010, all two and three-wheeled motorcycles and mopeds were subject to China III (similar to Euro 3) standards. As an additional requirement to Euro 3, China III requires emission controls to be durable up to 10,000–30,000 km depending on engine size.

Standard type
Conventional pollutant emission limits

Applicability
Two and three-wheeled motorcycles and mopeds

History

China is the world’s leading motorcycle manufacturer, with an annual production volume of over 27 million two- and three-wheelers. With such an immense population of motorcycles and mopeds, regulating the group of vehicles is an important piece of the country’s emission control program.

Stage III standards are based on the Euro 3 standards for motorcycles, but with the new addition of emission durability requirements (unique to China III in that they are not part of the EU’s motorcycle program). Two stroke engines are no longer sold in China in order to make it easier to meet Stage III standards.

The most current set of emissions standards, Stage III standards, for two- and three-wheelers in China were implemented in 2008-2009. Even as standards for two- and three- wheelers tighten, motorcycles remain more polluting than four-wheel vehicles (on a per kilometer basis), and further reduction in emission limits will be required to mitigate their air quality impacts.

Gasoline is the dominant fuel for these types of vehicles. Regulated pollutants, for both the Euro and China programs, include HC, CO, and NOx.

Key progress in China’s implementation of motorcycle emission standards is as follows:

Stage Standard Implementation Date
(type approval)
Implementation Date
(all sales and registrations)
Stage I GB 14622-2002 (MCs)
GB18176-2002 (mopeds)
1 Jan 2003 1 Jul 2003 (MCs)
1 Jan 2004 (mopeds)
Stage II 1 Jan 2004 (MCs)
1 Jan 2005 (mopeds)
1 Jan 2005 (MCs)
1 Jan 2006 (mopeds)
Stage III GB 14622-2007 (MCs)
GB18176-2007 (mopeds)
1 Jul 2008 1 Jul 2009(1)
(1) This is the original implementation date; actual implementation date extended by one year.

Technical Standards

China introduced the Stage I standard in 2003 for motorcycles and 2004 for mopeds. The standards quickly moved to Stage II, which were implemented in 2005 for 2- and 3-wheeled motorcycles. A year later, it was a requirement for 2- and 3-wheeled mopeds as well.

Emission Standards for Two-Wheeler Type Approval
Year began Engine Size (cc) (g/km) Driving Cycle Cold Start Durability (km)
CO HC NOx HC + NOx
Two-Wheeler with Two-Stroke Engine
2003 <50 (moped) 6 3 ECE R47 No 6,0001
≥50 8 4 0.1 ECE R40 No 6,0001
2004 ≥50 5.5 1.2 0.3 ECE R40 No 10,0001
2005 ≥50 (moped) 1 1.2 ECE R47 No 10,0001
Two-Wheeler with Four-Stroke Engine
2003 <50 (moped) 6 3 ECE R47 No 6,0001
≥50 13 3 0.3 ECE R40 No 6,0001
2004 ≥50 5.5 1.2 0.3 ECE R40 No 10,0001
2005 <50 (moped) 1 1.2 ECE R47 No 10,0001
2008 <50 1 1.2 ECE R47 Yes 10,000
50-150 2 0.8 0.15 ECE R40 Yes 18,0002
30,0003
≥150 2 0.3 0.15 ECE R40 + EUDC Yes 18,0002
30,0003
Notes:
1. If installed with emission control device;
2. Maximum speed under 130 km/h and displacement above 150cc;
3. Maximum speed equal to or above 130 km/h and displacement above 150cc;
Emission Standards for Three-Wheeler Type Approval
Year began Engine Size (cc) (g/km) Driving Cycle Cold Start Durability (km)
CO HC NOx HC + NOx
Three-Wheeler with Two-Stroke Engine
2003 < 50 (moped) 12 6 ECE R47 No 6,0001
≥50 12 6 0.15 ECE R40 No 6,0001
2004 ≥50 7 1.5 0.4 ECE R40 No 10,0001
2005 <50 (moped) 3.5 1.2 ECE R47 No 10,0001
2008 <50 (moped) 3.5 1.2 ECE R47 Yes 10,000
≥50 4 1 0.25 ECE R40 Yes 12,0004
18,0002
30,0003
Three-Wheeler with Four-Stroke Engine
2003 <50 12 6 ECE R47 No 6,0001
≥50 19.5 4.5 0.45 ECE R40 No 6,0001
2005 <50 (moped) 3.5 1.2 ECE R40 No 10,0001
≥50 7 1.5 0.4 ECE R40 No 10,0001
2008 <50 (moped) 3.5 1.2 ECE R47 Yes 10,000
≥50 4 1 0.25 ECE R40 Yes 12,0004
18,0002
30,0003
Notes:
1. If installed with emission control device;
2. Maximum speed under 130 km/h and displacement above 150cc;
3. Maximum speed equal to or above 130 km/h and displacement above 150cc;
4. Displacement between 50 and 150 cc; Moped: Maximum speed under or equal to 50 km/h and displacement under or equal to 50 cc

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