Beijing: Light-Duty: Emissions

Overview

Beijing implemented the China V standards before the rest of the country, and because the China V standard had not been finalized when Beijing adopted it, the city operates under a Beijing V standard. Beijing is moving toward the Beijing VI standard, which shifts to the US model from the previously used European one.  

Standard type
Conventional pollutant emission limits

Applicability

Current standard: Applies to M1, M2 and N1 vehicles under 2,610 kg of reference mass and powered by gasoline.
Future Standard: All passenger cars and light trucks (roughly equivalent to some N1 and M3 vehicles), following the Californian LEV III standards

History

In 1999, Beijing implemented the national LDV tailpipe emission standard China (equivalent to Euro 1), one year ahead of the nationwide timeline. The standards were replaced by the China 1 national LDV tailpipe emission standards in 2000. Since then, Beijing has consistently adopted tailpipe emission standards ahead of the nationwide timeline (see chart below). In 2008, the year of the Beijing Olympics, Beijing implemented Euro 4-based standards. On 1 Feb 2013, Beijing advanced to Beijing 5 standards equivalent to Euro 5 (DB11/ 946-2013). In September 2013, the national China 5 standard (with the same emission limits) automatically superseded Beijing 5. China 5 standards will be implemented nationwide in 2018.

On 26 Nov 2015, BEPB released the proposed LDV emission standard for Beijing 6 (“Jing 6”). It combines vehicle emission requirements from the United States (Tier 3), the State of California and the European Union.

Timeline for Advanced Adoption of Bejing LDV Emissions Standards1

Beijing emissionstandard.png

1 The implementation dates in this figure are rounded to the nearest year. For detailed information (i.e. exact implementation dates) see the China: Light-duty: Emissions and EU: Light-duty: Emissions pages.

Timeline for implementation of light-duty emission standards in Beijing

Standard Beijing Implementation Date1 Reference Standard
China I 1 Jan 1999 Euro 1
China II 1 Jan 2003 Euro 2
China III 31 Dec 2005 Euro 3
China IV 1 Dec 2008 (OBD req.) Euro 4
Beijing 52
(superseded by China 5)
1 Feb 2013 Euro 5
Beijing 6 (proposed in Nov 2015) Dec 2017 Euro 6, Tier 3, LEV III
Notes:1. Dates apply to new type approvals—application to all sales and registrations typically occurs about one year later.
2. The official English titles of China III and IV use Roman numerals, while the official English title of China 5 uses an Arabic numeral.

Technical Standards

Beijing 5

Beijing was granted special approval to adopt a custom standard, as the nationwide China 5 standard had not yet been released when it was introduced in 2013. Emission limits for China 5, equivalent to the Beijing 5 standard, are shown below.

Vehicle Classification

Light-duty vehicle categories are based on the EU classification with some deviation:

  • Type 1 vehicles: M1 vehicles with no more than 6 passengers including driver and GVWR ≤ 2.5 tons.
  • Type 2 vehicles: Other light-duty vehicles (including N1 light commercial vehicles) further divided into three classes based on reference mass.

Limit Values and Test Cycles

Beijing 5/China 5 test cycles are based on the European test cycles. Emission limits for Beijing 5/China 5 are shown in the table below :

Emission limits for Beijing 5/China 5 LDV emissions standards

Engine Type Vehicle Type (Class1) Reference Mass CO HC HC+NOx NOx PM 2 PN
kg kg g/km #/km
Spark Ignition (Gasoline)3 1 All 1.0 0.10 0.06 0.0045
2 (I) <1,305 1.0 0.10 0.06 0.0045
2 (II) 1,305-1,760 1.81 0.13 0.075 0.0045
2 (III) >1,760 2.27 0.16 0.082 0.0045
Compression Ignition (Diesel) 1 All 0.50 0.23 0.18 0.0045 6.0x1011
2 (I) <1,305 0.50 0.23 0.18 0.0045 6.0x1011
2 (II) 1,305-1,760 0.63 0.295 0.235 0.0045 6.0x1011
2 (III) >1,760 0.74 0.35 0.28 0.0045 6.0x1011
Notes:1. Arabic numerals refer to vehicle Type. Roman Numerals refer to different classes of Type 2 vehicles based on reference mass.
2. PM limits for gasoline vehicles only apply to GDI vehicles.
3. Bejing 5 only covered gasoline LDVs.

Durability

Durability requirements are 80,000 km for China III, 100,000 km for China IV, and 160,000 km for China 5.

Beijing 6 Proposal

Limit Values and Test Cycles

The Beijing 6 proposal represents a shift from following the European pathway to that of the US, which has adopted the world’s most stringent LDV emission standards to date. The Beijing 6 proposal aims to achieve Beijing’s local emission reduction goals (targeting a 30-50% reduction in local air pollutants from new light-duty vehicles by 2017), formulated in the Clean Air Action Plan. The new standard proposal includes aggressive or special driving cycles intended to cover a wider range of driving conditions that vehicles encounter during use.

For new light-duty vehicles, the Beijing 6 proposal adopts the ULEV 70 limits in California’s LEV III emission standards as maximum emission limits on a per-vehicle basis. Beijing also adopted the FTP-75 test cycle family including the urban, highway, and cold-temperature driving cycles, as well as the supplemental US06 and SC03 cycles.

Beijing banned the sale and registration of light-duty diesel vehicles. So all requirements in the light-duty vehicle standard proposal apply to gasoline, gasoline hybrid, and gasoline dual fuel vehicles only. Emission limits under these test cycles are given in the following table.

Emission limits under different test cycles in Beijing 6 standard proposal

Cycle Vehicle Type CO
(mg/km)
NMOG+ NOx
(mg/kg)
PM
(mg/ km)
FTP-75 M1, M2, M3 1,000 43.5 1.86 1
N1 1,000 43.5 6.20
US03 ≤2,720 GVW 6,000 74.6 6.20 1
>2,720 GVW 6,000 74.6 12.4
SC03 All types 2,000 43.5
HWFET All types 43.5
Notes:1. For Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) vehicles only

Durability

The Beijing 6 proposal extends the durability requirement for emission control performance up to 200,000 km, compared to 160,000 under Beijing/ China 5. After implementation, Beijing EPB will gather Bejing 6 vehicle durability data to support revising the set of recommended deterioration factors.

Refueling and Evaporative Emissions Limits

The proposed Beijing 6 requirements for evaporative and refueling emissions are much stronger than those of the Beijing 5 standard. Due to the substantial change in test procedures from Beijing 5/ China 5 to the Beijing 6 proposal, it is difficult to make a direct comparison between the standards; however, the emission limits are tightened by 40-68% depending on the vehicle type. The Beijing 6 proposal adopted test procedures similar to those of the US Tier 2 regulation.

The proposed emission limit during refueling is 0.05 grams per liter. The proposed emission limit under the diurnal and hot soak test ranges from 0.65 to 1.15 grams per test depending on the vehicle sub-category (for gasoline and hybrid light-duty vehicles), as shown in the following table.

Evaporative emissions limit for Type IV test

Vehicle Type GVW Limit (grams/ test)
M1, M2, M3 0.65
N1 ≤2,720 GVW 0.85
>2,720 GVW 1.15

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