Beijing has historically adopted HDV emissions standards early, as China allows regions and cities to implement vehicle emission standards before the rest of the country. The China VI standard was officially put into place in Beijing in 2019, making Beijing’s emission standards one of the most stringent in the world.
Conventional pollutant emission limits
Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau (BEPB)
Heavy-duty vehicles with gross vehicle weight over 3,500 kg, equipped with one of the following engine types: compression ignition, positive ignition natural gas, or liquified petroleum gas.
Regions and cities in China are permitted to implement slated national vehicle emission standards in their own regions in advance of the nationwide implementation dates. In order to do this, the city and/or region must meet the following two conditions. First, the standard must be identical to the standard already adopted and issued (but not yet implemented) by the national government. Second, China’s State Council, the highest executive body of the State, must grant approval. Beginning in 1999, Beijing has consistently adopted HDV emission standards ahead of the national government timeline. Beijing implemented its first HDV emission standard for diesel and gasoline engines in 2000, while the national (China I) standards came into effect in 2001 (for comparison, see the China: Heavy-duty: Emissions page). Beijing also proposed its own version of emission standards, titled “Jing VI” for limiting HDV emissions, but in the end, Jing VI was instead replaced by China VI for the sake of standard nationwide conformity. Beijing thereafter decided to apply China VI ahead of other regions’ implementation by 2 years, officially adopting the China VI standard on 1 Jul 2019. The remaining regions’ standards will take effect on 1 Jul 2021.
Due to the technical difficulties of China VI implementation, China VI was split into two sub-stages for smoother development: China VI-a and China VI-b. While most regions in China will follow the national pace when transitioning from China VI-a to China VI-b, Beijing, along with 13 provinces and municipalities (i.e. Guangdong, Tianjin, and Shanghai, among others) with more aggressive targets, skipped the China VI-a phase altogether and transitioned directly to China VI-B implementation. Beijing’s actions show their approach to be much more ambitious and aggressive in curbing HDV emissions than most other regions throughout China.
The following table summarizes the progression of HDV emission standards in Beijing:
|Stage||Date of implementation|
|China I||1 Jan 1999|
|China II||1 Jan 2003|
|China III||31 Dec 2005|
|China IV||1 Jul 2008|
|China V/ Beijing V||1 Feb 2013 for new buses and city cleaning vehicles
1 Jun 2015 for new HDV sales
|China VI-b||1 Jul 2019 for new natural gas vehicles, buses, and city cleaning vehicles
1 Jan 2020 for new HDV sales
Technical Standards of China VI
Compared to China V, China VI improves standards on NOX emissions by 77% and PM emissions by 67%. China VI also is the first in the China series to introduce Particle Number (PN) and ammonia (NH3) as testing pollutants. China VI shares the same standards on several pollutants with their European counterparts (Euro VI), while being even more aggressive on some testing types and specifications, making China VI one of the most stringent HDV emission standards in the world.
China VI applies to heavy-duty compression ignition engines (CI) and positive ignition engines (PI) using natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). For type approval, heavy-duty engines are required to pass the following tests:
- Engine bench tests on World Harmonized Stationary Cycle (WHSC), World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) and World Harmonized Not-To-Exceed (WNTE) test (off-cycle emission test) for gaseous pollutants, PM, and PN
- OBD tests
- NOx control tests
- Crankcase ventilation tests
- Durability tests
- PEMS test
For the PEMS test, the test engine is installed on vehicles to operate on-road, and emissions are measured using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). Emission limits under the PEMS test are provided in the next section; however, the PEMS test is used to verify that the test engine can meet WNTE emission limits when installed on a real vehicle, different from the concept of in-use compliance testing.
|Test Cycle||Engine type||CO||THC||NMHC||CH4||NOx||PM||NH3||PN1|
|Stationary and transient cycles||WHSC||CI||1500||130||–||–||400||10||10||8.0×1011|
|Full vehicle cycle||PEMS||CI||6000||–||–||–||690||–||–||1.2×1012|
|Dual fuels||6000||1.5×WHTC value||–||–||690||–||–||1.2×1012|
|(1) Available from China VI-b|
China VI adopts the Euro VI durability requirements for both engines and vehicles. In general, the durability requirements improve by increasing gross vehicle weight.
|Vehicle category||Durability requirement1|
|M1, N1, M2||200,000 km||5 years|
|N3 ≤ 18,000 kg||300,000 km||6 years|
|M3-I, M3-II, M3-B|
|M3-B ≤ 7,500 kg|
|N3 > 18,000 kg||700,000 km||7 years|
|M3-B > 7,500 kg|
|(1) According to whichever to be reached earlier|
|(2) Vehicle kilometer traveled|
The deterioration factors shall be determined by linear regression methods during durability testing. Engine manufacturers are also able to use the data below as an alternative.
|(1) Only for CI engines|
|(2) Only for PI engines|
Heavy-duty gasoline vehicles
- China I/II: GB14762-2002
- China III/IV: GB14762-2008
- Crankcase emissions: GB11340-2005
- Evaporative emissions: GB14763-2005
- Idling emissions: GB18285-2005
Heavy-duty diesel vehicles
- China I/II: GB17691-2001
- China III/IV/V: GB17691-2005
- China VI: GB17691-2018
- Exhaust smoke: GB3847-2005
Review of Beijing’s comprehensive motor vehicle emission control programs
Supplemental NOx standards for Euro IV/V HDVs in Beijing
Cost-benefit assessment of the China VI emission standard for new heavy-duty vehicles
China’s Stage VI emissions standard for heavy-duty vehicles (final rule)