Beijing: Heavy-Duty: Emissions

Overview

Because China allows regions and cities to implement vehicle emission standards before the rest of the country, Beijing has historically adopted HDV emissions standards early. The China V standard is currently in effect in Beijing, with a Beijing VI (analogous to Euro VI) standard in development.

Standard type
Conventional pollutant emission limits

Current Standard
China V (early adoption)

Applicability
Heavy-duty vehicles over 3,500 kg, equipped with compression ignition engines or positive ignition natural gas or liquified petroleum gas engines.

History

Sub-national regions and cities in China are permitted to implement vehicle emission standards in advance of the nationwide implementation dates under two conditions. First, the standard must have already been adopted and issued by the national government. Second, China’s State Council, the highest executive body, must grant approval. Starting in 1999, Beijing has consistently adopted HDV emission standards ahead of the national government timeline. Beijing implemented its first HDV emission standard for diesel and gasoline engines in 2000, while the national (China I) standards came into effect in 2001 (for comparison, see the page on China: Heavy-duty: Emissions). More recently, Beijing has applied China V to new buses and city cleaning vehicles since February 2013 and to all HDVs registered in Beijing since June 2015. Nationwide China V standards will apply to all new HDVs in July 2017. The following table summarizes the progression of HDV emission standards in Beijing:

Implementation of Heavy-Duty Emission Standards in Beijing
Stage Beijing
China I 1 Jan 1999
China II 1 Jan 2003
China III 31 Dec 2005
China IV 1 Jul 2008
China V/ Beijing V 1 Feb 2013 for new buses and city cleaning vehicles
1 Jun 2015 for new HDV sales(1)
1 Since 1 Jan 2016, DPFs are also required on new sales of public HDDVs (buses, sanitation, postal, tour coaches, shuttles etc.)

Technical Standards

China V

Limit Values

The emission limits for Beijing V are identical to those of China V. Beijing V was automatically replaced by China V when the national standard was released.

China V Emission Limits for Heavy-Duty Engines

Standard Test Cycle CO HC NMHC CH41 NOX PM Smoke
g/kWh 1/m
China V ESC + ELR 1.5 0.46 2.0 0.02 0.5
ETC 4.0 0.55 1.1 2.0 0.03
1 Natural gas engines only

Supplementary NOx Standards

Heavy-duty vehicles built and certified in conformity to Euro IV and V emissions standards frequently do not achieve the real-world NOx emissions expected under those standards when operating in low-speed, urban driving conditions. In March 2013, the Beijing EPB implemented two new local standards to supplement the national China IV and V HDV standards, specifically designed to prevent these excess NOX emissions. In doing so, Beijing has become the first region in the world to attempt to solve a known deficiency in the Euro IV and V standards by requiring additional environmental testing. The local standard is replaced by national supplementary NOx standards when they are released. The two Beijing standards apply to China IV and V vehicles with Gross Vehicle Weight above 3,500kg. Considering the difference in fuel quality requirements between Beijing and surrounding areas, the supplemental test is only required for HDVs operating in Beijing’s urban area. The local standard The two supplemental standards are as follows:

  • Bench mode methods1
  • PEMS method

The bench method requires China IV and V engines to be tested over the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) in addition to the currently required European Transient Cycle (ETC). Both cold-start and hot-start testing are required, with results weighted 14% and 86%, respectively. The PEMS standard establishes in-use, complete vehicle Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) testing requirements for manufacturers to prove that real-world emissions do not overly exceed certification limit values.

Beijing VI Proposal

The following sections summarize the provisions in the proposed rule as found in ICCT’s 2016 policy update. For more details, see the policy update available on the ICCT’s website.

The Jing VI heavy-duty engine standard proposal largely mirrored the Euro VI standard with a few modifications and enhancements. The Jing VI proposal applies to heavy-duty compression ignition engines (CI) and also positive ignition engines (PI) using natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). For type approval, heavy-duty engines need to pass the following tests:

  • Engine bench tests on World Harmonized Stationary Cycle (WHSC), World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) cycles and the World Harmonized Not-To-Exceed (WNTE) test (off-cycle emission test) and meet corresponding pollutants emission limits, after applying corresponding deterioration factors.
  • For engines without an EGR system, these tests will be performed on the test engine with the after-treatment system removed. The engine is considered a pass if test results, after applying deterioration factors, do not exceed five times the limit values in the next section. Essentially, the emission control after-treatment system needs to reduce 80% of the engine-out NOx emissions.
  • OBD and NOx control system verification tests
  • Durability tests
  • Full-vehicle demonstrative emission test (PEMS test). For this test, the test engine is installed on a representative vehicle to operate on-road, and emissions are measured using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). Emission limits under the PEMS test are provided in the next section. However, different from the concept of in-use compliance testing, the PEMS test at certification is to verify that test engine can meet WNTE emission limits when installed on a real representative vehicle.

Limit Values

Engine emission limits under WHSC, WHTC cycles and off-cycle (WNTE)

Cycle/Engine Type CO THC NMHC CH4 NOX NH3 PM PN
g/kWh ppm
WHSC (CI) 1.5 0.13 0.40 0.01 0.01 8x1011
WHSC (PI) 1.5 0.13 0.41 0.40 8x1011
WHTC (CI) 4.0 0.16 0.46 0.01 0.01 8x1011
WHTC (PI) 4.0 0.16 0.50 0.46 6x1011
WNTE (CI) 2.0 0.22 0.48 0.012
WNTE (PI) 2.0 0.22 0.69 0.48 0.012

Proposed emission limits for full vehicle PEMS testing

CO THC NMHC CH4 NOX
g/kWh
CI 4.8 0.19 0.55
PI 4.8 0.19 0.60 0.55

Durability

Beijing VI adopts the Euro VI durability requirements for engines and vehicles, and the US durability requirement for parts.

Durability requirements for engine, vehicle, and emission control parts

Vehicle Category Requirement
N2 >3,500 <12,000 kg 300,000 km/6 years
N3 ≤ 16,000 kg
M3 ≤ 7,500 kg
N3 > 16,000 kg 700,000 km/6 years
M3 > 7,500 kg
Key emission control components 160,000 km/5 years

Emissions are measured in accordance with ISO 8178-1.

Show 1 footnote

  1. DB11/964-2013,4 “Limits and measurement methods for exhaust pollutants from compression ignition and gas fueled positive ignition engines of vehicles”

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