Brazil: Fuels: Diesel and Gasoline

Overview

As of 2013, S10 (10 ppm sulfur) diesel is available in major metropolitan areas and selected stations nationwide to fuel P7 trucks. As of 2014, S50 (50 ppm) gasoline is sold exclusively nationwide to fuel L6 light-duty vehicles. Brazil has also implemented ethanol and biodiesel standards that are described on the Brazil Biofuels Policy Page.

Standard type
Fuel quality

Regulating Body
National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP—Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis)

Current Standard
Diesel S500 and Gasoline S50 (commercial) in 2014, ANP Resolution #38, dated 9 Dec 2009

History

Brazilian fuel specifications are established by the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP—Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis).

Diesel

Since 2001, on-road diesel fuel quality has been differentiated by location, with key milestones as follows:

  • In December 2001, ANP Resolution 310/2001 defined the specifications for two types of on-road diesel fuel: Metropolitan and Countryside. Metropolitan diesel fuel was the only diesel fuel permitted for sale in select cities in Brazil (first to those cities with poor air quality then to cities with more than 200,000 inhabitants) and limited sulfur to 2,000 mg/kg (2,000 ppm). Countryside diesel fuel was intended for the other parts of the country and had a sulfur limit of 3,500 mg/kg (3,500 ppm).
  • In December 2005, ANP Resolution 12/2005 introduced a third type of diesel fuel, S500, which had a sulfur limit of 500 mg/kg (500 ppm). It replaced Metropolitan diesel fuel in select municipalities in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Campinas, Baixada Santista, Sao Jose dos Campos, Belo Horizonte and Vale do Aço.
  • In July 2006, a new diesel fuel specification was introduced in ANP Resolution 15/2006, and replaced ANP Resolution 310/2001. The S500 diesel fuel was dropped but the sulfur limits of Metropolitan and Countryside diesel fuels were lowered to 500 and 2,000 mg/kg respectively. It also required the sulfur limits for Metropolitan and Countryside Diesel fuel to drop to 50 and 500 mg/kg to coincide with the introduction of exhaust emission standards equivalent to Euro IV in 2009. The goal of introducing S50 diesel in Metropolitan diesel was not achieved as planned for January 2009 due to technical problems at refineries and with the automotive industry.
  • In November 2008, CONAMA (National Council on the Environment) issued resolution 403/2008 which required ANP to develop a fuel standard to enable the introduction of diesel fuel with a 10 mg/kg maximum sulfur limit (S10) by 1 January 2012.
  • In December 2009, ANP Resolution 42/2009 replaced the Countryside and Metropolitan grades of diesel fuel defined in ANP Resolution 15/2006 with S50 (50 mg/kg sulfur), S500 (500 mg/kg sulfur) and S1800 (1800 mg/kg sulfur). It also required S50 to be sold exclusively in a number of metropolitan areas in the states of Pará, Ceará and Pernambuco; in bus fleets in the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Curtiba and in urban bus fleets in many cities in the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Numerous other Brazilian cities were required to exclusively sell S500. S1800 could be used in other parts of the country but would be phased out by 1 January 2014 and replaced with S500.
  • In September 2010, ANP Resolution 33/2010 delayed the switch to S500 in some municipalities by up to 15 months.
  • In October 2011, a consultation was held to establish a new fuel standard that includes an S10 grade. The proposal would (1) require Type B (containing biodiesel) S50 in many municipalities that previously required S50, (2) replace S50 with S10 starting 1 January 2013 and (3) require numerous states and municipalities to switch from S1800 to S500.
  • On 1 January 2013, S50 diesel fuel was replaced by S10 diesel fuel in major metropolitan areas and in selected stations nationwide to fuel P-7 trucks.
Diesel fuel sulfur limits by region [parts per million]
2012 2013 2014
Countryside 1800 1800 500
Select Metros 50 10 10
Other Metros 500 500
Select Stations Nationwide 50 10 10

Gasoline

Brazil achieved the total phaseout of leaded gasoline by 1991. Until the end of 2013, gasoline with up to 1000-ppm sulfur was sold in some areas of the country. As of January 1, 2014, S50 (50 ppm) gasoline is sold exclusively nationwide, to coincide with new emission standards for gasoline light-duty vehicles (L-6).

Resolutions

Brazil fuel quality resolutions
Fuel ANP rule
Diesel S10 (commercial) ANP Resolution #31, dated 14 Oct 2009
Diesel S10 (reference) ANP Resolution #40, dated 24 Dec 2008
Diesel S50, S500, S1800 (commercial) ANP Resolution #42, dated 17 Dec 2009 (amended as of 14 Jan 2010)
ANP Resolution #33 29 Sept 2010
(modifies Resolução 42/2010’s minimum cetane number for Diesel S500)
Diesel S50 (reference) ANP Resolution #35 dated 9 Sept 2007 (amended 7 Dec 2007
Gasoline S50 (commercial) ANP Resolution #38 dated 9 Dec 2009
Gasoline S50 (reference) ANP Resolution #21 dated 2 July 2009

Technical Standards

Diesel

Specifications for road use diesel 
Feature1 Unit Limit Method
Type A and B ABNT NBR ASTM
S50 S500 S18002
Aspect Clear and free of impurities Visual3
Color See note 4 red Visual3
ASTM color, max.5 3.0 14483 D1500
D6045
Biodiesel content7 % Volume See note 6 15568
Total sulfur, max. mg / kg 50 D2622
D5453
D7039
D72128
D72208
500 1800 14533 D2622
D4294
D5453
Specific gravity at 20ºC kg/m3 820-8509 820 to 865q 820-880 7148
14065
D1298
D4052
Flashpoint, min. C 38.0 7974
14598
D56
D93
D3828
Viscosity at 40°C mm2/ s 2.0 to 5.0 10441 D445
Cold filter plugging point (CFPP), max. C (10) 14747 D6371
Cetane number, or Derived cetane number (DCN), min. 46 4211 4211 D613
D6890
D7170
Ash, Max. % Mass 0.010 9842 D482
Corrosiveness to copper 3h at 50 ° C, max 1 14359 D130
Water and sediment, max.12 % Volume 0.05 D2709

Notes:

  1. Other features may be included in this specification with their respective limits for diesel obtained from diverse process of refining and natural gas processing or from different feedstock oil.
  2. As of January 1, 2014, diesel S1800 will no longer be marketed as diesel for road use and will be replaced entirely by diesel S500.
  3. Visual test should be observed in 1 liter glass beaker.
  4. Usually colorless to yellow, and may slightly change to brown and orange hues due to coloring of biodiesel.
  5. Limit required before addition of the dye. The red dye, according to the specification in Table III of the technical regulation, should be added to diesel oil in the S1800 content of 20 mg/L for Refineries, Central Petrochemical and Raw Materials Exporters.
  6. The percentage set by law. Nobody variation of ± 0.5% volume. Determination of biodiesel content in diesel B should be performed according to EN 14078.
  7. Applicable only to diesel B.
  8. Applicable only to diesel A.
  9. Permissible range from 820 to 853 kg/m3 for diesel B.
  10. Limits as shown:
Cold Filter Plugging Point
State °C, max
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul 12 12 12 7 3 3 3 3 7 9 9 12
Goiás/Distrito Federal, Mato Grosso, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro 12 12 12 10 5 5 5 8 8 10 12 12
Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul 10 10 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 7 7 10
  1. Alternatively, it is allowed to determine the cetane number calculated by the NBR 14,759 (ASTM D4737) for the diesel oils A and A S1800 S500, when the product contains no cetane improver additive, with a lower limit of 45. In case of non-compliance, the cetane number test should be performed. The producer and importer shall inform the Certificate of Quality where it is used cetane improver additive. Note that the cetane number does not reflect the quality of ignition of diesel containing biodiesel and / or cetane improver additive.
  2. Applicable in the importation, prior to release of the product for marketing.

Gasoline

Brazil has a government-mandated ethanol blend in gasoline fuel, which ranges from 18 to 25 percent. There is also extensive use of higher ethanol blends, and very high market penetration of flex-fuel vehicles (as well as a legacy fleet of ethanol-only vehicles). In response to an ethanol shortage in early 2011, the government created new rules defining ethanol as a fuel (as opposed to an agriculture commodity), and thus authorized ANP to regulate and control its production and distribution.

Commercial Specifications of Gasoline
Feature Unit Limit Method
Petrol Joint Gasoline Premium
Type A Type C Type A Type C ABNT NBR ASTM
Color See note 1 See note 2 See note 1 See note 2 visual
Aspect See note 4 See note 4 149543 D41763
Anhydrous Ethanol Content % Volume 1 (max)5 See note 6 1 (max)5 See note 6 13992
Specific gravity at 20ºC kg/m3 note 7148
14065
D1298
D4052
Distillation 9619 D86
10% evaporated, max. °C 65.0 65.0
50% evaporated, max. 120.0 80.0 120.0 80.0
90% evaporated, max. 190.0 190.0
PEF, max. 215.0 215.0
Residue, max. % Volume 2.0 2.0
MON, min7 82.0 D2700
Anti-knock index (AKI), min7,8 87.0 91 D2699
D2700
Vapor Pressure at 37.8ºC9 kPa 45.0 to 62.0 69.0 (max) 45.0 to 62.0 69.0 (max) 14149
14156
D4953
D5190
D5191
D5482
Gum content, max mg/100ml 5 5 14525 D381
Induction Period to 100ºC, min10 min 480 480 14478 D525
Copper Corrosivity to 50ºC, 3h, max. 1 1 14359 D130
Sulfur, max11 mg / kg 50 50 D2622
D3120
D5453
D6920
D7039
D7212
Benzene, max11 % Volume 1.0 1.0 D3606
D5443
D6277
Lead, max12 g / L 0.005 0.005 D3237
Phosphorus, max12 mg / L 0.2 0.2 D3231
Silicon, max mg / kg note note ICP-AES
Hydrocarbons11,13 14932 D1319
Aromatics, max % Volume 35 35
Olefin, max 25 25
Saturated note note

Notes:

  1. Usually colorless to yellow, free of dye.
  2. Usually colorless to yellow free of dye. Dye permitted, with a maximum permissible level of 50 ppm. The color color blue is restricted to aviation gasoline.
  3. Procedure 1.
  4. Clear and free of impurities.
  5. Prohibited. This should be measured if there is suspicion of contamination.
  6. The content of Anhydrous Ethanol to be blended with gasoline for the production of gasoline C shall be in accordance with the governing law.
  7. Tests RON and MON octane should be carried out by adding anhydrous ethanol to gasoline A, the content of a percentage point below the value at the date of production of gasoline A.
  8. Anti-knock index is the arithmetic mean of the values determined by methods octanagens MON and RON.
  9. For the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás and Tocantins and the Federal District, admits up in the months from April to November, an increase of 7.0 kPa the maximum value specified for the vapor pressure.
  10. The assay induction period should be conducted after adding anhydrous ethanol to the gasoline in the amount of one percent above the value at the date of production of gasoline A.
  11. The content of aromatics, olefins, saturates, benzene and sulfur Gasoline C, refer to the ethanol-containing gasoline to the level of a percentage point below the value at the date of production of gasoline.
  12. The addition of any compound containing phosphorus or lead is prohibited. This feature should be measured if there is suspicion of contamination.
  13. Alternatively, the determination of aromatic hydrocarbons, olefinic and saturated by gas chromatography is allowed. In case of disagreement between the results, testing by ABNT NBR 14932 or ASTM D131 will determine final results.

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