EU: Light-duty: Emissions

Overview

Euro 6 standards have applied to all sales of new cars and light commercial vehicles since September 2015 and not-to-exceed limits, applied as the Euro 6 emission limit multiplied by a conformity factor, applied starting in September 2017. Conformity factors are applied independently for nitrogen oxide emissions and particle number. For more information, see http://www.theicct.org/spotlight/eu-type-approval-test-procedures

Standard type
Conventional pollutant emission limits

Regulating Body
European Union (European Commission, Parliament, Council, and Member States)

Applicability
All vehicles in categories M1, M2, N1 and N2 with a reference mass not exceeding 2610 kg

History

From 1970 until 2006 (through Euro 4), emissions regulations for new light duty vehicles were specified in Directive 70/220/EEC (plus numerous amendments). Beginning with Euro 5 (adopted in 2009), standards have been issued by direct Regulations, which are directly enforceable in all Member States, as opposed to Directives, which must be transposed into each individual Member State. The light-duty Euro standards are referred to using Arabic numerals, e.g. Euro 1, 2, … 6. Standards vary depending on vehicle fuel type and vehicle size, and include passenger cars and light commercial vehicles.

The regulatory timeline for adoption of EU light-duty vehicle emission standards is as follows:

Standard(s) Implementation Date (new vehicle type approvals) Implementation Date (all vehicle sales and registrations) Regulation(s) Notes
pre-Euro
beginning 1970
Directive 70/220/EEC Revised and updated multiple times
Euro 1 Jul 1992 Jan 1993 Directive 91/441/EEC(passenger cars only) Also known as EC 93; content equivalent to ECE-R-83/01
Aug 1993 Aug 1994 Directive 93/59/EEC* (PC and light trucks) Content equivalent to ECE-R-83/02
Euro 2 Jan 1996 Jan 1997 Directives 94/12/EC*96/44/EC96/69/EC* Also known as EC 96; content equivalent to ECE-R-83/03 and ECE-R-83/04
Euro 3 Jan 2000 Jan 2001 Directive 98/69/EC*98/77/EC

1999/102/EC

2001/1/EC

2001/100/EC

Directive 2000/80/EC Directive 2002/80/EC

Added NOx-specific limits in addition to HC+NOx limits; also known as EC 2000; content equivalent to ECE-R-83/05
Euro 4 Jan 2005 Jan 2006 2003/76/EC2006/96/EC Also known as EC 2005
Euro 5 a: Sep 2009b: Sep 2011 a: Jan 2011b: Jan 2013 Regulation 715/2007“political”Regulation 692/2008“implementing” Euro 5b legislation included, for the first time, a particle number (PN) emission limit for compression ignition engines. Content equivalent to ECE-R-83/06.
Euro 6 Sep 2014 Sep 2015
* Amendment to Directive 70/220/EEC

EU vehicle emission regulations are transposed into UNECE regulations: ECE R 83/01-06.

Technical Standards

Euro 1-6

EU emission limits for each standard are summarized in the following tables. All dates listed in the tables refer to new type approvals. The EC Directives also specify a second date—one year later, unless indicated otherwise—which applies to first registration (entry into service) of existing, previously type-approved vehicle models.

EU Emission Standards for Passenger Cars (M1, M2)*
Stage Date CO HC HC+NOx NOx PM PN
g/km #/km
Compression Ignition (Diesel)
Euro 1† 1992.07 2.72 (3.16) 0.97 (1.13) 0.14 (0.18)
Euro 2, IDI 1996.01 1.0 0.7 0.08
Euro 2, DI 1996.01a 1.0 0.9 0.10
Euro 3 2000.01 0.64 0.56 0.50 0.05
Euro 4 2005.01 0.50 0.30 0.25 0.025
Euro 5a 2009.09b 0.50 0.23 0.18 0.005f
Euro 5b 2011.09c 0.50 0.23 0.18 0.005f 6.0×1011
Euro 6 2014.09 0.50 0.17 0.08 0.005f 6.0×1011
Positive Ignition (Gasoline)
Euro 1† 1992.07 2.72 (3.16) 0.97 (1.13)
Euro 2 1996.01 2.2 0.5
Euro 3 2000.01 2.30 0.20 0.15
Euro 4 2005.01 1.0 0.10 0.08
Euro 5 2009.09b 1.0 0.10d 0.06 0.005e,f
Euro 6 2014.09 1.0 0.10d 0.06 0.005e,f 6.0×1011 e,g
Notes:
* At the Euro 1-4 stages, passenger vehicles > 2,500 kg were type approved as Category N1 vehicles
† Values in brackets are conformity of production (COP) limits
a. until 1999.09.30 (after that date DI engines must meet the IDI limits)
b. 2011.01 for all models
c. 2013.01 for all models
d. and NMHC = 0.068 g/km
e. applicable only to vehicles using DI engines
f. 0.0045 g/km using the PMP measurement procedure
g. 6.0×1012 1/km within first three years from Euro 6 effective dates
EU Emission Standards for Light Commercial Vehicles (N1, N2)
Category† Stage Date CO HC HC+NOx NOx PM PN
g/km #/km
Compression Ignition (Diesel)
N1, Class I
≤1305 kg
Euro 1 1994.10 2.72 0.97 0.14
Euro 2 IDI 1998.01 1.0 0.70 0.08
Euro 2 DI 1998.01a 1.0 0.90 0.10
Euro 3 2000.01 0.64 0.56 0.50 0.05
Euro 4 2005.01 0.50 0.30 0.25 0.025
Euro 5a 2009.09b 0.50 0.23 0.18 0.005f
Euro 5b 2011.09d 0.50 0.23 0.18 0.005f 6.0×1011
Euro 6 2014.09 0.50 0.17 0.08 0.005f 6.0×1011
N1, Class II
1305-1760 kg
Euro 1 1994.10 5.17 1.40 0.19
Euro 2 IDI 1998.01 1.25 1.0 0.12
Euro 2 DI 1998.01a 1.25 1.30 0.14
Euro 3 2001.01 0.80 0.72 0.65 0.07
Euro 4 2006.01 0.63 0.39 0.33 0.04
Euro 5a 2010.09c 0.63 0.295 0.235 0.005f
Euro 5b 2011.09d 0.63 0.295 0.235 0.005f 6.0×1011
Euro 6 2015.09 0.63 0.195 0.105 0.005f 6.0×1011
N1, Class III
>1760 kg
Euro 1 1994.10 6.90 1.70 0.25
Euro 2 IDI 1998.01 1.5 1.20 0.17
Euro 2 DI 1998.01a 1.5 1.60 0.20
Euro 3 2001.01 0.95 0.86 0.78 0.10
Euro 4 2006.01 0.74 0.46 0.39 0.06
Euro 5a 2010.09c 0.74 0.350 0.280 0.005f
Euro 5b 2011.09d 0.74 0.350 0.280 0.005f 6.0×1011
Euro 6 2015.09 0.74 0.215 0.125 0.005f 6.0×1011
N2 Euro 5a 2010.09c 0.74 0.350 0.280 0.005f
Euro 5b 2011.09d 0.74 0.350 0.280 0.005f 6.0×1011
Euro 6 2015.09 0.74 0.215 0.125 0.005f 6.0×1011
Positive Ignition (Gasoline)
N1, Class I
≤1305 kg
Euro 1 1994.10 2.72 0.97
Euro 2 1998.01 2.2 0.50
Euro 3 2000.01 2.3 0.20 0.15
Euro 4 2005.01 1.0 0.1 0.08
Euro 5 2009.09b 1.0 0.10g 0.06 0.005e,f
Euro 6 2014.09 1.0 0.10g 0.06 0.005e,f 6.0×1011 e,j
N1, Class II
1305-1760 kg
Euro 1 1994.10 5.17 1.40
Euro 2 1998.01 4.0 0.65
Euro 3 2001.01 4.17 0.25 0.18
Euro 4 2006.01 1.81 0.13 0.10
Euro 5 2010.09c 1.81 0.13h 0.075 0.005e,f
Euro 6 2015.09 1.81 0.13h 0.075 0.005e,f 6.0×1011 e,j
N1, Class III
>1760 kg
Euro 1 1994.10 6.90 1.70
Euro 2 1998.01 5.0 0.80
Euro 3 2001.01 5.22 0.29 0.21
Euro 4 2006.01 2.27 0.16 0.11
Euro 5 2010.09c 2.27 0.16i 0.082 0.005e,f
Euro 6 2015.09 2.27 0.16i 0.082 0.005e,f 6.0×1011 e,j
N2 Euro 5 2010.09c 2.27 0.16i 0.082 0.005e,f
Euro 6 2015.09 2.27 0.16i 0.082 0.005e,f 6.0×1011 e,j
Notes:
† For Euro 1/2 the Category N1 reference mass classes were Class I ≤ 1250 kg, Class II 1250-1700 kg, Class III > 1700 kg
a. until 1999.09.30 (after that date DI engines must meet the IDI limits)
b. 2011.01 for all models
c. 2012.01 for all models
d. 2013.01 for all models
e. applicable only to vehicles using DI engines
f. 0.0045 g/km using the PMP measurement procedure
g. and NMHC = 0.068 g/km
h. and NMHC = 0.090 g/km
i. and NMHC = 0.108 g/km
j. 6.0×1012 1/km within first three years from Euro 6 effective dates

Durability

Useful vehicle life for the purpose of emission regulations is:

  • Euro 3 stage — 80,000 km or 5 years (whichever occurs first); in lieu of an actual deterioration run, manufacturers may use the following deterioration factors:
    • Positive ignition: 1.2 for CO, HC, NOx
    • Compression ignition: 1.1 for CO; 1.0 for NOx and for HC+NOx; 1.2 for PM
  • Euro 4 stage — 100,000 km or 5 years, whichever occurs first.
  • Euro 5/6 stage — in-service conformity: 100,000 km or 5 years; durability testing of pollution control devices for type approval: 160,000 km or 5 years (whichever occurs first); in lieu of a durability test, manufacturers may use the following deterioration factors:
    • Positive ignition: 1.5 for CO; 1.3 for HC; 1.6 for NOx; 1.0 for PM and PN
    • Compression ignition, Euro 5: 1.5 for CO; 1.1 for NOx and HC+NOx; 1.0 for PM and PN. Euro 6 deterioration factors to be determined.

Testing

Emissions are tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) (ECE 15 + EUDC) chassis dynamometer procedure. Effective in 2000 with the Euro 3 standard, the test procedure was modified to eliminate the 40 s engine warm-up period before the beginning of emission sampling. This modified cold start test is referred to as the NEDC or as the MVEG-B test. All emissions are expressed in g/km.

The Euro 5/6 implementing legislation introduces a new PM mass emission measurement method (similar to the US 2007 procedure) developed by the Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP) and adjusts the PM mass emission limits to account for differences in results using the old and the new method. The Euro 5b legislation also introduces a particle number (PN) emission limit in addition to the mass-based limits. Because gasoline direct injection engines have gained relevance, a particle number emission limit for gasoline vehicles is to be defined by September 2014, when Euro 6 is implemented.

Fuel Quality

The Euro 3 and Euro 4 standards were preceded by the introduction of more stringent fuel regulations that required a minimum diesel cetane number of 51 (year 2000), maximum diesel sulfur content of 350 ppm in 2000 and 50 ppm in 2005, and maximum petrol (gasoline) sulfur content of 150 ppm in 2000 and 50 ppm in 2005. “Sulfur-free” diesel and gasoline fuels (≤ 10 ppm S) must be available from 2005, and became mandatory from 2009.

Key Features

Euro 1 and 2

Euro 1 standards (also known as EC 93), were mandated under Directive 91/441/EEC, for passenger cars only. They were then updated under Directive 93/59/EEC to include both passenger cars and light trucks. Euro 2 standards were mandated under EC 96: Directives 94/12/EC or 96/69/EC.

Euro 3 and 4

Euro 3 and 4 standards were mandated under Directive 98/69/EC, with further amendments added under Directive 2002/80/EC. Euro 3 added NOx-specific limits in addition to HC+NOx limits. Positive ignition vehicles were exempted from PM standards through the Euro 4 stage.

In Europe, diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) were widely used to comply with Euro 3 and Euro 4 standards. A DOC is a flow-through device that replaces the muffler and makes use of precious metals to oxidize carbon monoxide (CO), gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), and liquid hydrocarbon particles (unburned fuel and oil). DOCs reduce overall PM mass and many toxic organic compounds but are not as effective as catalyzed diesel particle filters in controlling the large number of fine and ultra-fine particles in diesel exhaust.

Euro 5 and 6

For diesel engines, Euro 5 has two sets of limits scheduled for implementation: Euro 5a and Euro 5b. For gasoline engines, there is only one set of standards, referred to as Euro 5. Implementation of Euro 5 and Euro 5a began in September 2009. Euro 5b went into effect in 2011.

Euro 5b legislation included, for the first time, a PN emission limit of 6.0×1011/km to the mass-based limits for compression ignition engines established in Euro 5a. Euro 5 improves on Euro 4 by focusing on particulate matter from diesel cars. Euro 5 requires particle filters for diesel cars and mandates PM emissions be reduced to 5 mg/km.

In September of 2014, Europe will introduce Euro 6 standards. An impact assessment by the European Commission found that the stricter NOx requirements in Euro 6 will increase health benefits by 60-90 percent over Euro 5. Euro 6 requires the same PN limit for CI engines as does Euro 5b. The same PN emission limit for diesel vehicles will apply to gasoline vehicles as well when Euro 6 goes into effect.

For both Euro 5 and 6, Regulation 715/2007 served as the EU’s “political” legislation, while Regulation 692/2008 was the official “implementing” legislation. These regulations introduce PM mass emission standards, equal to those for diesels, for positive ignition vehicles with DI engines. In order to meet Euro 5 and 6 particle number standards, diesel-fueled vehicles will need diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology. Both gasoline and diesel vehicles will need lower sulfur fuels available for refueling, as well. To achieve the required emission reductions, fuel will need to be 50-ppm sulfur at the least, although 10-ppm sulfur fuel is recommended for better emission reduction performance.

Technology

The following figures, from the International Council on Clean Transportation1,summarize the major technologies required to meet each stage of Euro emission limits.

Technologies required for compliance: Gasoline

Gasoline Euro pathway.png

Technologies required for compliance: Diesel

Diesel Euro pathway.png

Show 1 footnote

  1. ICCT. (2012). Estimated cost of emission reduction technologies for LDVs: by F. Posada, A. Bandivadekar, and J. German, . Washington DC: International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT)

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