Chile: Light-duty: Emissions

Overview

As with heavy-duty vehicles, light and medium-duty vehicles in Chile conform to either US or European standards. Light and medium-duty diesel vehicles were adopted to Euro 5/US Tier 2 in 2012, and gasoline vehicles adhere to either Euro IV or US Tier 2. In-use vehicles are subject to a two-speed idle test to ensure compliance.

Standard type
Conventional emissions

Applicability
Light-duty (GVWR < 2700 kg) and medium-duty (2700 ≤ GVWR < 3860 kg) vehicles, 1994 or newer

History

Emission standards for light- and heavy-duty highway vehicles have been in place since the early 1990s. While the standards are based on US and EU emission regulations, they are not necessarily equivalent. Dual standards often exist, allowing new engines to meet either US or EU standards. No on-board diagnostic (OBD) requirements are indicated in Chile’s emission standards. Durability requirements were added in 2012.

The emission limits are based on the date that application is first made to register the vehicle in the national vehicle registry and the geographic region in which it operates. The application date for registration, as opposed to the vehicle model year, is presumably used to control emissions from imported used vehicles. To legally operate an on-road vehicle in Chile, a colored sticker must be attached to the vehicle. The color of the sticker determines the region of the country in which a vehicle may operate; rules for issuing stickers depend on the vehicle class.

Due to severe pollution problems, many vehicle emission standards for the Santiago Metropolitan Region (RM) are more stringent and/or were introduced earlier that those for the rest of the country. A decree issued in 2010 (D.S. N° 66/10) required a number of programs to be established in the Santiago Metropolitan Region by 2011 to accelerate the uptake of cleaner vehicles. These programs include the implementation of a Low Emission Zone for heavy vehicles and a voluntary truck scrappage program.

Technical Standards

The emission standards for light-duty (GVWR < 2700 kg) and medium-duty (2700 ≤ GVWR < 3860 kg) vehicles apply to 1994 model year and newer vehicles (D.S. N° 211/1991 and D.S. N° 54/1994). Light-duty vehicles include passenger cars and light light-duty trucks. Medium-duty vehicles are heavy light-duty trucks.

Early emission standards for passenger cars and light trucks, which were based on US 1984 regulations, are shown below. These standards first applied in the Santiago Metropolitan Region and in the continental parts of Region V and Region VI. The test cycle was the US FTP75.

Emission Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (1992-2006), g/km
Category Date CO HC NOx PM*
Light-Duty Vehicles GVWR < 2700 kg
Passenger Cars 1992.09 (RM, V & VI)
1994.09 (National)
2.11 0.25 0.62 0.125
Light-Duty Trucks 1992.09 (RM, V & VI) 6.2 0.50 1.43 0.16
1998.09 (RM)
2006.05 (National)
6.2 0.50 0.75 0.16
Medium-Duty Vehicles 2700 ≤ GVW < 3860 kg
Type 1, LVW < 1700 kg 1995.09 (RM, V & VI) 6.2 0.50 1.43 0.16
1998.09 (RM)
2006.05 (National)
6.2 0.50 0.75 0.16
Type 2, LVW ≥ 1700 kg 1995.09 (RM, V & VI) 6.2 0.50 1.43 0.31
1998.09 (RM)
2006.05 (National)
6.2 0.50 1.10 0.08
* PM limits applicable to diesel vehicles only

Diesel fueled vehicles

Standards for light- and medium-duty vehicles reflecting US Tier 1 and Euro 3 standards came into effect in 2005 for RM and 2006 nationally. For light-duty diesel fueled vehicles operating in RM, standards based on California Tier 1 and Euro 4 were adopted for 2006/2007 and were be tightened to EPA Tier 2 Bin 5/Euro 5 levels in 2011. EPA Tier 2 Bin 8/Euro 4 based standards for light-duty vehicles with a spark ignition engine operating in RM apply beginning 2011. For medium-duty spark ignition and diesel fueled vehicles operating in RM, standards based on EPA Tier 1 Bin 8 and Euro 4 levels came into effect in 2011; medium-duty diesel fueled vehicles were tightened to EPA Tier 2 Bin 5/Euro 5 in 2012. The US based standards are numerically equal to the intermediate life (5 year/50,000 mile) EPA or California limits.

Emission Standards for Diesel Fueled Light-Duty Vehicles, g/km
Alternative 1: US Based Standards
Category Date CO HCHO* NMHC NOx PM Durability (mi) Reference
Light-Duty Vehicles GVWR < 2700 kg
Passenger Cars ≤ 12 passengers Jan 2005 (RM)
2006.09 (National)
2.11 0.16a 0.62 0.05 EPA Tier 1,
Intermediate life
LDT Type 1, LVW ≤ 1700 kg 2.11 0.16 0.62 0.05
LDT Type 2, LVW > 1700 kg 2.74 0.20 0.61 0.05
Passenger Cars ≤ 12 passengers Mar 2006 (RM) 2.11 0.16 0.25 0.05 California Tier 1,
Intermediate life
LDT Type 1, LVW ≤ 1700 kg 2.11 0.16 0.25 0.05
LDT Type 2, LVW > 1700 kg 2.74 0.20 0.44 0.05
Passenger Cars ≤ 12 passengers Sept 2011 (RM) 2.11 9.32 0.047 0.031 0.0062 EPA Tier 2 Bin 5,
Intermediate life
LDT Type 1, LVW ≤ 1700 kg 2.11 9.32 0.047 0.031 0.0062
LDT Type 2, LVW > 1700 kg 2.11 9.32 0.047 0.031 0.0062
Passenger Cars ≤ 12 passengers
LDT Type 1, LVW ≤ 1700 kg
LDT Type 2, LVW > 1700 kg
Mar 2013 (National) 2.11 9.32 0.062 0.087 50,000
2.61 11.19 0.078 0.124 0.012 120,000
Medium-Duty Vehicles 2700 ≤ GVW < 3860 kg
Type 1, 1700 kg < ALVW ≤ 2610 kg Jan 2005 (RM)
Sept 2006 (National)
2.74 0.20 0.61 0.06 EPA Tier 1,
Intermediate life
Type 2, ALVW ≥ 2610 kg 3.11 0.24 0.95 0.07
Type 1, 1700 kg < ALVW ≤ 2610 kg Apr 2011 (RM) 2.11 9.32 0.062 0.087 0.012 EPA Tier 2 Bin 8,
Intermediate life
Type 2, ALVW ≥ 2610 kg 2.11 9.32 0.0062 0.087 0.012
Type 1, 1700 kg < ALVW ≤ 2610 kg Sept 2012 (RM) 2.11 9.32 0.0047 0.031 0.0062 EPA Tier 2 Bin 5,
Intermediate life
Type 2, ALVW ≥ 2610 kg 2.11 9.32 0.0047 0.031 0.0062
Notes:
* mg/km
† NMOG in 2011/2012 standards
a – THC limit of 0.25 g/km is also applicable
Emission Standards for Diesel Fueled Light-Duty Vehicles, g/km
Alternative 2:
EU Based Standards
Category Date CO NOx+HC NOx PM Reference
Light-Duty Vehicles GVWR < 2700 kg
Passenger Cars 2005.01 (RM)
2006.09 (National)
0.64 0.56 0.50 0.05 Euro 3
LDT Class 1, RM ≤ 1305 kg 0.64 0.56 0.50 0.05
LDT Class 2, 1305 kg < RM ≤1760 kg 0.80 0.72 0.65 0.07
LDT Class 3, RM > 1760 kg 0.95 0.86 0.78 0.10
Passenger Cars 2006.03a (RM) 0.50 0.30 0.25 0.025 Euro 4
LDT Class 1, RM ≤ 1305 kg 0.50 0.30 0.25 0.025
LDT Class 2, 1305 kg < RM ≤1760 kg 2007.03 (RM) 0.63 0.39 0.33 0.04
LDT Class 3, RM > 1760 kg 0.74 0.46 0.39 0.06
Passenger Cars 2011.09 (RM) 0.500 0.230 0.180 0.005 Euro 5
LDT Class 1, RM ≤ 1305 kg 0.500 0.230 0.180 0.005
LDT Class 2, 1305 kg < RM ≤1760 kg 2012.09 (RM) 0.500 0.295 0.235 0.005
LDT Class 3, RM > 1760 kg 0.500 0.350 0.280 0.005
Medium-Duty Vehicles 2700 ≤ GVW < 3860 kg
MDT Class 1, RM ≤1305 2005.01 (RM)
2006.09 (National)
0.64 0.56 0.50 0.05 Euro 3
MDT Class 2, 1305 < RM ≤ 1760 kg 0.80 0.72 0.65 0.07
MDT Class 3, RM > 1760 kg 0.95 0.86 0.78 0.10
MDT Class 1, RM ≤1305 2011.04 (RM) 0.50 0.30 0.25 0.025 Euro 4
MDT Class 2, 1305 < RM ≤ 1760 kg 0.63 0.39 0.33 0.04
MDT Class 3, RM > 1760 kg 0.74 0.46 0.39 0.06
MDT Class 1, RM ≤1305 2012.09 (RM) 0.50 0.230 0.180 0.005 Euro 5
MDT Class 2, 1305 < RM ≤ 1760 kg 0.63 0.295 0.235 0.005
MDT Class 3, RM > 1760 kg 0.74 0.350 0.280 0.005
a – 2007.03 for passenger cars with GVWR > 2500 kg

Gasoline, CNG and LPG fueled vehicles

Emission Standards for Gasoline, CNG and LPG Fueled Light-Duty Vehicles, g/km
Alternative 1: US Based Standards
Category Date CO HCHO* HC NMHC† NOx Durability Reference
Light-Duty Vehicles GVWR < 2700 kg
Passenger Cars ≤ 12 passengers Jan 2005 (RM)
Sept 2006 (National)
2.11 0.25 0.16 0.25 EPA Tier 1,
Intermediate life
LDT Type 1, LVW ≤ 1700 2.11 0.25 0.16 0.25
LDT Type 2, LVW > 1700 2.74 0.25 0.20 0.44
Passenger Cars ≤ 12 passengers April 2011 (RM) 2.11 9.32 0.062 0.087 EPA Tier 2 Bin 8,
Intermediate life
LDT Type 1, LVW ≤ 1700 2.11 9.32 0.062 0.087
LDT Type 2, LVW > 1700 2.11 9.32 0.062 0.087
Passenger Cars ≤ 12 passengers
LDT Type 1, LVW ≤ 1700 kg
LDT Type 2, LVW > 1700 kg
Mar 2013 (National) 2.11 9.32 0.062 0.087 50,000
2.61 11.19 0.078 0.124 120,000
Medium-Duty Vehicles 2700 ≤ GVW < 3860 kg
Type 1, 1700 kg < ALVW ≤ 2610 kg Jan 2005 (RM)
Sept 2006 (National)
2.70 0.20 0.44 EPA Tier 1,
Intermediate life
Type 2, ALVW ≥ 2610 kg 3.11 0.24 0.68
Type 1, 1700 kg < ALVW ≤ 2610 kg April 2011 (RM) 2.11 9.32 0.062 0.087 EPA Tier 2 Bin 8,
Intermediate life
Type 2, ALVW ≥ 2610 kg 2.11 9.32 0.062 0.087
Notes:
* mg/km
† NMOG in 2011/2012 standards
Emission Standards for Gasoline, CNG and LPG Fueled Light-Duty Vehicles, g/km
Alternative 2:
EU Based Standards
Category Date CO HC NOx Reference
Light-Duty Vehicles GVWR < 2700 kg
Passenger Cars 2005.01 (RM)
2006.09 (National)
2.3 0.20 0.15 Euro 3
LDT Class 1, RM ≤ 1305 kg 2.3 0.20 0.15
LDT Class 2, 1305 < RM ≤ 1760 kg 4.17 0.25 0.18
LDT Class 3, RM > 1760 kg 5.22 0.29 0.21
Passenger Cars 2011.04 (RM) 1.00 0.10 0.08 Euro 4
LDT Class 1, RM ≤ 1305 kg 1.00 0.10 0.08
LDT Class 2, 1305 < RM ≤ 1760 kg 1.81 0.13 0.10
LDT Class 3, RM > 1760 kg 2.27 0.16 0.11
Medium-Duty Vehicles 2700 ≤ GVW < 3860 kg
MDT Class 1, RM ≤ 1305 kg 2005.01 (RM)
2006.09 (National)
2.3 0.20 0.15 Euro 3
MDT Class 2, 1305 kg < RM ≤ 1760 kg 4.17 0.25 0.18
MDT Class 3, RM > 1760 kg 5.22 0.29 0.21
Medium-Duty Vehicles 2700 ≤ GVW < 3860 kg
MDT Class 1, RM ≤ 1305 kg 2011.04 (RM) 1.00 0.10 0.08 Euro 4
MDT Class 2, 1305 kg < RM ≤ 1760 kg 1.81 0.13 0.10
MDT Class 3, RM > 1760 kg 2.27 0.16 0.11

New gasoline fueled vehicles must also meet an evaporative emission limit of 2 g/test (SHED).

In-use vehicles. Inspection and Maintenance tests are carried out with a two speed idle test. In-use light-duty, medium-duty spark-ignition and heavy-duty gasoline fueled vehicles have to meet I/M maximum limits of 0.5% CO and 100 ppm HC. Light-duty SI vehicles must also meet a minimum limit of 6% CO2 + CO. Light-duty diesels must show no visible smoke. Medium-duty and heavy-duty diesels must pass filter smoke number and opacity tests with the engine under load and during a snap-acceleration test. An in-use opacity limit for vehicles equipped with particulate filters is set at 0.24 m-1 maximum [D.S. N° 66/10]. Urban buses have also the following in-use emission limits (D.S. N° 130/02):

  • Smoke opacity < 4%, k = 1.0 1/m for diesel engines
  • CO < 0.5%, THC < 100 ppm for gaseous fuel and gasoline engines

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