Chile: Heavy-duty: Emissions

Overview

Chilean heavy-duty vehicles are given the option of adhering to European or US Standards, with the Euro V/US 2007 standards currently in place for PM emissions and the Euro IV/US 2004 standards in place for NOX emissions.

Standard type
Conventional pollutant emission limits

Current Standard
Euro V

Applicability
Heavy-Duty Engines, GVW ≥ 3860 kg

History

Emission standards for highway vehicles, light- and heavy-duty, have been in place since the early 1990s. While the standards are based on US and EU emission regulations, they are not necessarily equivalent. Dual standards often exist, allowing new engines to meet either US or EU standards. No durability or on-board diagnostic (OBD) requirements are indicated in Chile’s emission standards.

The emission limits are based on the date that application is first made to register the vehicle in the national vehicle registry and the geographic region in which it operates. Application date for registration as opposed to vehicle model year is used presumably to control emissions from imported used vehicles. To legally operate an on-road vehicle in Chile, a colored sticker must be attached to the vehicle. The color of the sticker determines what region of the country a vehicle may operate in. Rules for issuing stickers depend on the vehicle class.

Due to more severe pollution problems, many vehicle emission standards for the Santiago Metropolitan Region (RM) are more stringent and/or introduced earlier that those for the rest of the country. A decree issued in 2010 (D.S. N° 66/10) required a number of programs to be established in the Santiago Metropolitan Region by 2011 to accelerate the uptake of cleaner vehicles. These programs include the implementation of a Low Emission Zone for heavy vehicles and a voluntary truck scrappage program.

Technical Standards

Emission standards for heavy-duty truck and bus engines are listed below. Early standards applied to vehicles operating in the Santiago Metropolitan Region (RM) and Region IV to X. Nationwide standards took effect in 2006. In cases where dual standards exist—EU-based and US-based—engines are tested on the respective EU or US test cycles, as indicated.

Starting with heavy-duty vehicles first registered January 2012 and later and operating in the Metropolitan Region, PM emissions are limited to Euro V/US 2007 levels while NOx limits for these vehicles are limited to Euro IV/US 2004 levels. In addition to OEM vehicles produced to meet the 2012 PM requirements, the limit could also be met by engines originally certified to PM emissions higher than the levels shown if they have been fitted with a diesel particulate filter carrying an approval by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) or California ARB Level 3 verification and if the engine’s certification PM emissions multiplied by (1 – filter efficiency/100) does not exceed the limits shown. It should be noted that this is not a retrofit requirement for vehicles first registered prior to 2012 but a compliance option for those first registered after January 2012.

The table below shows emission limits for heavy-duty engines.

Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Engines, GVW ≥ 3860 kg
Date CO HC NOx PM Unit Test Reference
Diesel
Sept 1994 (RM & IV-X)1 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36a g/kWh ECE R-49 Euro I
15.5 1.3 6.0 0.35 g/bhp-hr US FTP US 1991
Sept 1998 (RM & IV-X)
May 2006 (National)
4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15 g/kWh ECE R-49 Euro II
15.5 1.3 5.0 0.10 g/bhp-hr US FTP US 1994
Oct 2006 (RM & IV-X)2 2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10 (0.13*) g/kWh ESC Euro III
5.45 0.78 5.0 0.16 (0.21*) ETC
15.5 1.3 4.0 0.10 g/bhp-hr US FTP US 1998
Jan 2012 (RM) 2.1 0.66 5.0 0.02 g/kWh ESC Euro III/Euro IV PM
5.45 0.78 5.0 0.03 ETC
15.5 1.3 4.0 0.01 g/bhp-hr US FTP US 1998/US2007 PM
May 2012 (National)d
Sept 2013 (buses)
1.5 0.46 3.5 0.02 g/kWh ESC Euro IV
4.0 0.55 3.5 0.03 ETC
15.5 2.4/2.5 -/0.5 0.01e,g g/bhp-hr
Oct 2014d,f
Sept 2015 (buses)
1.5 0.46 2.0 0.02 g/kWh ESC Euro V
4.0 0.55 2.0 0.03 ETC
15.5 2.5/2.4 0.5/- 0.01 g/bhp-hr
Gasoline
Sept 1994 37.1 1.9 5.0 g/bhp-hr US FTP
Gaseous Fuels
Jan 2004 5.45 0.78b 5.0 g/kWh ETC
15.5 1.3c< 4.0 0.10 g/bhp-hr US FTP
Notes:
† HC+NOx beginning in May 2012
* for engines of less than 0.75 dm3 swept volume per cylinder and a rated power speed of more than 3000 min-1
1 – Regions where standard took effect on date indicated
2 – ETC testing and emission limits apply only to diesel engines with advanced aftertreatment, e.g., with particulate filters and/or NOx catalysts
a – 0.612 g/kWh for engines < 85 kW
b – NMHC for natural gas engines; natural gas engines must also meet a CH4 limit of 1.6 g/kWh
c – 1.2 g/bhp-hr NMHC for natural gas engines
d – Engine manufacturers may choose between option 1/option 2
e – GVW ≥ 15,000 kg
f – 1 Oct 2014 for new models. 1 Oct 2015 for all models
g – 0.05 for buses

Emission standards for urban buses operating in certain parts of the Santiago Metropolitan Region (Santiago Province and the municipalities of San Bernardo and Puente Alto) are governed by D.S. N° 130/01. These standards are typically more stringent and are implemented sooner than national standards. Urban buses first registered in September 2012 or later for use in this region must be equipped with a factory installed OEM diesel particulate filter to ensure emissions do not exceed the limits equivalent to Euro IV or US 2004 NMHC+NOx/US 2007 PM (D.S. N° 66/10). Gasoline and gas-fueled trucks and buses also have an evaporative emission limit of 4 g/per test.

Emission Standards for Urban Buses in Metropolitan Regions
Date CO HC NOx PM Unit Test Reference
Diesel
Sept 1993 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36a g/kWh ECE R-49 Euro I
15.5 1.3 6.0 0.25 g/bhp-hr US FTP US 1991
Sept 1996 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15 g/kWh ECE R-49 Euro II
15.5 1.3 5.0 0.10 g/bhp-hr US FTP US 1994
Sept 2002† 2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10 (0.13*) g/kWh ESC Euro III
5.45 0.78 5.0 0.16 (0.21*) ETC
15.5 1.3 4.0 0.05 g/bhp-hr US FTP US 1998
Sept 2012 1.50 0.46 3.5 0.02 g/kWh ESC Euro IV
4.0 0.55 3.5 0.03 ETC
15.5 2.4d 0.01 g/bhp-hr US FTP US 2004/US 2007 PM
Gasoline
Sept 1993 37.1 1.9 5.0 g/bhp-hr US FTP
Gaseous Fuels
Sept 2002 5.45 0.78b 5.0 g/kWh ETC Euro III
15.5 1.3c 4.0 0.05 g/bhp-hr US FTP US 1998
Notes:* for engines of less than 0.75 dm3 swept volume per cylinder and a rated power speed of more than 3000 min-1
† for Euro III diesel vehicles whose first application for registration is made before 2006.03, ETC testing and emission limits apply only to diesel engines with advanced aftertreatment, e.g., with particulate filters and/or NOx catalysts. ESC and ETC testing applies to all diesel vehicles whose first application for registration is made 2006.03 or later.
a – 0.612 g/kWh for engines < 85 kW
b – NMHC for natural gas engines; natural gas engines must also meet a CH4 limit of 1.6 g/kWh
c – 1.2 g/bhp-hr NMHC for natural gas engines
d – NMHC+NOx. An limit of 2.5 g/bhp-hr applies if NMHC do not exceed 0.5 g/bhp-hr

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